Chapter Four: Of Eyes and Ostriches

“Although the blindfold has come to be valorized, it was once seen—as cartoonists often use it today — to denote a disabled Justice, blind to or hiding from the truth.”

Blind to the Light and Blindfolded by the Fool

  • The Blindfolded Justice in the Amsterdam Tribunal
  • “Open the eyes that are blind”
  • Synagoga: Blind to the “Light” of Christianity
  • Justice and Judges as Fools
  • Alciatus’s Theban Judges and Ripa’s Injunctions: “A Steely Gaze,” the Eye of the God, and Bandaged Eyes
  • Brugel’s Justice (or Injustice?)
  • Bamhoudere’s Janus-Faced Justice
  • Turning a Critical Eye

Transcendent, Wide-Eyed, and Amidst the Animals

  • Raphael’s Glory of Justice
  • Symbolism’s Caprice: The Many Animals of Justice
    • The Proud and the Dead Bird: Giulio Romano’s Justice with an Ostrich in the Vatican and Luca Giordano’s Justice Disarmed.
    • Sheep and Foxes, Dogs and Serpents: Rubens’s Wide-Eyed Justice

The Past as Prologue: Sighted or Blindfolded, and Tall

  • Venice as Justice, Justice as Venice
  • Across the English Channel
    • Queen Anne as Justice
    • The Lord Mayor’s Show
    • Dublin’s Justice
    • Old Bailey’s Open-Eyed and Wide-Eyed and Wide-Armed Justice
  • Across the Atlantic Ocean: Kansas’s Sharp Eyed Prairie Falcon and Vancouver’s Peaceful Justice

A Resilient, Albeit Invented, Tradition